Checkpoint Inhibition (PD-1/PD-L1)

Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) serves as an immune checkpoint that inhibits the T-cell response.1 PD-1 is activated when it is engaged by its ligands (PD-L1 or PD-L2), present on the antigen-presenting cell, resulting in inhibition of T-cell function.1 Early evidence suggests that tumors may co-opt this pathway by upregulating expression of PD-1 ligands as a mechanism of immune resistance.1 Therefore, targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is a promising immunotherapeutic strategy that may enhance T-cell anti-tumor responses.1-3

The safety and efficacy of the agents and/or uses under investigation have not been established. There is no guarantee that the agents will receive health authority approval or become commercially available in any country for the uses being investigated


  1. Pardoll DM. Nat Rev Cancer. 2012;12:252-264. PMID: 22437870
  2. Harris TJ, Drake CG. J Immunother Cancer. 2013;1:12. PMID: 24829749
  3. Disis ML. Semin Oncol. 2014;41(suppl 5):S3-S13. PMID: 25438997